Posts Tagged ‘Lupus’

Colossal Fireworks

X-ray: NASA/CXC/Rutgers/G.Cassam-Chenaï, J.Hughes et al.; Radio: NRAO/AUI/NSF/GBT/VLA/Dyer, Maddalena & Cornwell; Optical: Middlebury College/F.Winkler, NOAO/AURA/NSF/CTIO Schmidt & DSS

An expanding translucent bubble is all that remains of a star in this combinded image from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and other observatories.

Explore the bumps, ribbons and sheets throughout this image of SN 1006. What stories or images do you see? Leave a note in the comments below.

In the spring of 1006, night-time observers in China, Japan, Europe, the Arab world and the Americas documented a new light in the sky. To this day the supernova of 1006 is the brightest stellar event in recorded history. Reports from China and Arab astronomers report the star was more than twice as big as Venus and objects cast shadows. While this new “guest star” glowed for months, ancient observers had no way of knowing that a star had exploded. This was a different type of supernova. Instead of a massive star collapsing and exploding, a white dwarf star captured mass from a companion star. When enough material lands on the surface of a white dwarf it becomes unstable and explodes. White dwarf stars are the burned out cores of stars that were once like our Sun. After billions of years fusing hydrogen atoms in the core, the star runs out of fuel. When this occurs, the star puffs off its outer layers and all that remains is the white-hot core. In this case, the white dwarf probably orbited a much larger red giant star.

SN 1006 is found about 7,000 light-years from Earth toward the constellation Lupus, the Wolf. The remnant of the supernova of 1006 was not found until 1965 when astronomers using found that a previously known radio source was surrounded by a large shell. We now know that the shell extends for about 65 light-years. The shell is so large that the Hubble Space Telescope can image only parts of the supernova remnant.

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Eye in the Wolf

Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA

A nebulous eye glows in the constellation of Lupus the Wolf in this image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope.

Explore the dying beauty of a bright planetary nebula known as NGC 5882. There appear to be two shells of material surrounding the dying star. A bright blue oblong bubble surrounds the star on the inside. On the outside, look for a fainter, almost spherical shell. Intricate knots, filaments and bubbles are found throughout the image. While at the center, the blazing remains of a white dwarf shines brightly.

Planetary nebulae come in all shapes and sizes. No two are exactly alike. They have nothing to do with planets other than they appeared similar to the planets Uranus and Neptune through small telescopes. Astronomers in the 17th and 18th centuries gave them the name planetary nebula but it wasn’t until the 19th century that their true nature as dying stars was theorized. They signal the demise of mid-sized stars like our Sun. When a star’s hydrogen fuel is used up, the outer layers of the star cool and expand. Shells of gas and dust are puffed into space forming bubbles around the star. The star’s rotation usually determines the shape of the planetary nebula. All that is left after this process is the exposed, hot and dead core, known as a white dwarf. Planetary nebulae glow as intense ultraviolet radiation from the white dwarf bathes the surrounding gas and dust cloud. This star is fighting for survival. As it tries to burn other elements for fuel, it gets smaller and hotter. This blazingly hot star has a surface temperature more than 10 times hotter than the Sun at 70,000 degrees Celsius. The star will eventually lose the fight however as it completely runs out of fuel. Eventually, taking about 50,000 years, planetary nebulae fade. Our star will not go through this process for another four billion years or so.

NGC 5882 is found about 7,000 light-years from Earth toward the southern constellation Lupus, the Wolf.

Starship contrail

Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

A delicate ribbon of gas floats through this image from NASA‘s Hubble Space Telescope. Is it a contrail left by a starship barreling through the area? Actually, this ribbon of gas is the thin edge of the supernova remnant SN 1006 in our galaxy that exploded more than 1,000 years ago.

What stories can you create about this image? Leave us a note in the comments. We love mail.

Explore the image. SN 1006 is found in our Milky Way Galaxy but it is slightly out of the plane of the galaxy. This means that there are few stars to block or confuse our view of this supernova remnant. We can explore the folds in the gas. We also see many dim, far-off galaxies in the image. The stars in the image are background stars in our galaxy.

Some supernova form when stars five to ten times larger and heavier than our Sun reach the end of their lives. These stars tend to be super-hot and super-big. They burn through their nuclear fuel of hydrogen and helium within 10 million to 20 million years; very young in the life of stars. Once the fuel is used up, the giant stars begin to shrink. This makes the star hotter and the pressure of this increased heat and radiation tears the star apart. Supernovae explode, throwing their innards starward and they can outshine an entire galaxy for a short period of time. What’s interesting is that in the case of SN 1006, something slightly different happened. A white dwarf star was part of a star system with two stars. Astronomers call these binary star systems and we see many of them throughout the galaxy. White dwarf stars are thought to be the final state of stars that don’t have enough mass to become supernovae. The Sun will probably become a white dwarf at the end of its life. White dwarfs have all the weight of the Sun packed into an area the size of the Earth. In the binary star system of SN 1006, the white dwarf captured material from the other star over a long period of time. Astronomers think that white dwarfs can get only so big. When too much mass from the other star is added, POOF! A thermonuclear explosion destroys the dwarf star.

SN 1006 Remnant

SN 1006 supernova remnant

Observers on Earth saw SN 1006. Around May 1, 1006, astronomers in Africa, Europe and the Far East witnessed the first light coming from the new star that glowed in the sky. For weeks, only the Moon was brighter than the supernova in the night sky. It could be seen during they day and did not fade from view for more than two years. The supernova’s name comes from the year it was discovered. In the mid-1960s, radio astronomers detected a circular ring near the recorded position of the supernova. They found the size of the ring was about the size of a full moon as seen from Earth. That meant that in the past 1,000 years, the edge of the supernova’s bubble has been expanding at 20 million miles per hour. Astronomers now know that the bubble created by SN 1006 is about 60 light-years across. Humans didn’t see SN 1006 again until 1976 when astronomers detected the very faint edge of the supernova. The twisting braid of light we see in the image is moving quickly through an area of gas. As the supernova edge slams into the quiet gas, the gas is heated and begins to glow. As the ribbon twists, we can see the edges like a smoke ring rising into the air.

SN 1006 is located about 7,000 light-years from Earth toward the constellation of Lupus, the Wolf. That means that the light had been traveling at nearly six trillion miles per year for 7,000 years before it reached the eyes on Earth in 1006.

IC Eye

Credit: NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team STScI/AURA

Like many planetary nebula we’ve looked at, like the Ring Nebula, the Retina Nebula shows halves that match. Scientists call this symmetry. If we were to cut the image of the nebula in half, they would almost mirror each other. So why is the Retina Nebula different than the Ring Nebula and other planetary nebula that are circular in shape? If we could hop in our starship and fly around IC 4406, we’d find that we are looking at the nebula from the side. Imagine looking at a donut from the top. That would be the view of a circular nebula. But look at it from the side and that’s how the Retina Nebula seems to us standing on Earth. This side view, shown to us by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, offers astronomers a different view and gives them more ideas on the last stages of this dying star.

The nebula glows with different colors because the hot, central star gives off intense radiation. This radiation excites atoms in the gas cloud and causes it to glow with a certain color; blue for oxygen, green for hydrogen, and red for nitrogen. What do the layers of colors tell us about how the gases in the cloud formed?

Can you see the fine lines cutting up the cloud? These lanes of thick dust criss-cross the center of the nebula. They are about 160 astronomical units wide. One astronomical unit is the distance between the Earth and the Sun. Astronomers do not understand completely how the dust lanes form or their fate as the nebula expands and cools.

The Retina Nebula is found about 1,900 light-years away from Earth toward the constellation Lupus, the wolf.


The ancient peoples saw pictures in the sky. From those patterns in the heavens, ancient storytellers created legends about heroes, maidens, dragons, bears, centaurs, dogs and mythical creatures...
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